Tick-borne encephalitis – a viral, natural focal (typical only for certain areas) disease, mainly affecting the central nervous system.
Carriers of infection are the ticks, the virus is transmitted by the bite of a tick patient. Infection also affects and animals – rodents, cattle, monkeys, some birds.
Those most at risk are persons whose activities are related to the stay in the forest – workers of logging, geological parties, builders of roads and railways, oil and gas pipelines, power lines, surveyors, hunters, tourists. In recent years, frequent illness among residents who were infected in the peri-urban forests, gardens and garden plots.
Reasons for tick-borne encephalitis
Reservoirs and vectors of infection in nature ticks are common in the forests of almost all European countries. After a tick bite of an infected animal, after 5-6 days the virus penetrates into all organs of the tick, concentrating the reproductive system, gut and salivary glands (which explains the transmission of the virus to humans through the bite of ticks). Human infection can also occur during crushing and rubbing stuck tick, by eating infected raw goat and cow milk. Infection can also occur without a visit to the forest – tick can be brought out of the forest with branches on pet hair, etc. If the infection is transmitted through milk (some experts even allocate a route of infection and disease in the form of a single infection), the virus first enters into all the internal organs, causing the first wave of fever, then, when the virus reaches its final destination, the central nervous system – the second wave of fever. When the infection through the bite of developing another form of the disease, characterized by only one wave of fever, caused by the penetration of the virus in the brain and spinal cord and inflammation in these organs (actually encephalitis).
The symptoms of tick-borne encephalitis
The disease develops acutely through 1.5-3 weeks after the bite. The virus affects the gray matter of the brain, the motor neurons of the spinal cord and peripheral nerves, which is manifested convulsions, paralysis of certain muscle groups, or entire limbs and violation of skin sensitivity. Later, when the viral inflammation covers the entire brain, marked persistent headaches, vomiting, loss of consciousness up to coma or vice versa develops agitation with the loss of orientation in time and space. Later may occur disorders of the cardiovascular system (myocarditis, heart failure, arrhythmia), digestive system – delay chair, enlarged liver and spleen. All of these symptoms are accompanied by a toxic lesion of the organism – increase in body temperature to 39-40 degrees C.
Complications of tick-borne encephalitis mainly represented mostly flaccid paralysis of the upper extremities. The case fatality rate ranges from 2% at the European form, up to 20% at the Far Eastern form. Death occurs within 1 week of onset. It is also possible the development of chronic carriers of the virus.
When it detects it is necessary to remove the tick (drip on parasite oil or alcohol, wait 20 minutes, then brought under the lower tabs thread in a loop, slightly tighten and smooth rocking motion slowly pull the tick up, it also can be try to make a pair of tweezers). Remote mite better placed in a jar and take to the hospital, where it is possible to determine whether was a tick infected or not. Mites, because of their physiological characteristics, after suction to the skin did not immediately begin to feed on blood, so when their rapid detection and removal reduces the risk of being infected. If possible, refer to a nearby medical facility, where gently remove the tick and recommend preventive treatment. Within 30 days after the bite must be seen by a doctor. The appearance of a rash or temperature requires urgent consultation infectious disease.
The most effective prevention of infection after a tick bite is the introduction immunoglobulin (intramuscularly and once). You must enter it as soon as possible. This formulation contains an antibody prepared by means of which the body fights the virus. It is obtained from blood donors vaccinated against tick-borne encephalitis. There are also a number of antiviral drugs that can be assigned to you for the prevention of disease, such as Generic Atripla (Efavirenz+emtricitabine+tenofovir), Generic Truvada (Tenofovir Emtricitabine), Generic Famvir (Famciclovir), Generic Zovirax (Acyclovir) and others, which you can buy online through the Internet that will cost you cheap or with good discounts. Not everyone bitten by infected ticks ill, it all depends on the immune status of the organism. When prompted complaints should immediately consult a doctor. Further treatment will be carried out in the hospital with the use of antiviral antibodies, interferon preparations and ribonuclease. Required strict bed rest, balanced diet and vitamin therapy.
Prevention of tick-borne encephalitis
The most reliable protection against tick-borne encephalitis are own antibodies that are produced in response to the vaccine. Traditionally, they are held in advance in the autumn-winter period. Now, however, there were also foreign vaccine for fast (three injections over a period of 21 days) prevention of encephalitis. Vaccinations provide 91-97% guarantee that in 3% of people in protective antibody response to the vaccine can not be produced.
The second basis for protection against tick-borne encephalitis is the correct behavior in the forest. Going to a forest park or forest better in headgear, clothing that covers the entire body, spray the repellent clothing, repels ticks. Taking a walk, hold paths, do not climb into the thicket. After returning from a walk it is necessary to undress and to see each other from head to toe.