Lung diseases are among the most common diseases in the world. In the United States, tens of millions of people suffer from lung disease. Smoking, infections, genetic predisposition are responsible for the majority of lung diseases.
The lungs are part of a complex organ systems. They carry oxygen and emit carbon dioxide, expanding and relaxing thousand times per day. Lung disease can be the result of problems in any other part of the system
To diseases affecting the respiratory system include the following pathologies:
- Asthma whereby airways are constantly inflamed condition. Wheezing and shortness of breath characteristic arise due to spasm of the airways. Causes of Asthma may be infections, allergies or contamination.
- Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease resulting in difficulty breathing due to the inability of the patient to a normal expiration.
- Chronic bronchitis.
- Emphysema, complicates the process of inhalation air, because of damage to the lungs finding does not preclude the air in the lungs.
- Acute bronchitis – sudden infection of the respiratory tract, most often viral.
- Cystic fibrosis – a genetic abnormality characterized by the release of a small amount of mucus from the bronchial tubes.
What are lung diseases dangerous to the air sacs (alveoli)? Air sacs constitute the bulk of the lung tissue, and can hit them diseases such as:
- pneumonia (eg, segmental pneumonia) that affects the alveoli of bacteria;
- tuberculosis provoked tubercle bacilli;
- emphysema, often develops due to smoking;
- pulmonary edema caused by heart failure or injury;
- acute respiratory distress syndrome;
- lung cancer, determine which generally is not difficult;
- pneumoconiosis (occupational disease).
Lung diseases affecting the circulatory system
- Pulmonary embolism, at which the separation of blood clots and moving it to the heart with a hit to the lungs. Stuck in the pulmonary artery thrombus difficult breathing and reduced oxygen levels in the blood.
- Pulmonary hypertension, ie high blood pressure in the pulmonary arteries, leading to shortness of breath and chest pain.
Lung pathology may affect the pleura and chest wall. Among them it is worth noting pneumothorax, mesothelioma, pleural effusion, hypoventilation syndrome, and a variety of neuromuscular disorders.
Lung disease affecting the pleura
Pleura – a thin sheath that surrounds the lungs and lines the inside of the chest wall. A thin layer of liquid allows the pleura with each breath to slide over the surface of the lungs along the chest wall. Pulmonary pleural disease include:
- Pleural effusion: fluid normally accumulates in a small area of the pleura, between the lung and chest wall. This usually occurs after pneumonia or heart insufficiency. If a large pleural effusion makes breathing difficult, then it must be removed.
- Pneumothorax: air may enter the area between the chest wall and the lungs, causing a collapsed lung. To remove the air tube is usually injected through the chest wall.
- Mesothelioma: a rare form of cancer that forms in the pleura. Mesothelioma usually occurs several decades after exposure to asbestos.
Lung disease affecting the chest wall
Chest wall also plays an important role in breathing. Muscles associated with fins to help expand the chest. With each breath, the diaphragm is lowered and causing the expansion of the thorax.
- Hypoventilation syndrome: an excessive load on the chest and stomach hinders the expansion of the chest. As a result, you may cause serious breathing problems.
- Neuromuscular disorders: lack of functioning of the nerves that control the muscles of the respiratory system, causing shortness of breath. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and myasthenia gravis are examples of severe neuromuscular diseases of the lungs.
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