Antibiotics were discovered in the XX century, and in its time it was a huge event. There are lots of diseases that can not cope without antibiotic therapy. But antibiotics – it is a serious drug, each time you need to decide: whether and so it is necessary at this time to the child. If no antibiotic therapy can not do, it is important to make the right choice. These drugs are constantly changing, evolving, there are several generations of antibacterial drugs now.
Parents, remember that the question of the appointment of an antibiotic, on the choice of adequate preparation and method of administration solves only a doctor!
All the information below is for information only and is not a guide to action.
There are three major groups of antibiotics. The first – is a group of penicillin, the earliest (this is medication, from which the doctor must start the choice). Second – is a macrolides (erythromycin and derivatives thereof) and the third group –is a tsefalospariny, which in turn have four generations. The first three generations tsefalosparinov approved for use in pediatric practice. The choice of drug is more complex for the pediatrician, because now on the market there are a huge number of antibacterial drugs, clinical and bacteriological service lags, so does not have time to keep track all of them and explore.
At the moment, most antibiotic prescriptions in children is done in an outpatient (outpatient) practice. Moreover, almost 80% of the indications for their use are infections of the upper and lower respiratory tract (acute otitis media, pharyngitis, acute respiratory infections, and others.). In many cases, antibiotics are prescribed to children unnecessarily, mainly for uncomplicated SARS.
What does not do antibiotics:
- do not work on viruses;
- not reduce body temperature;
- Do not prevent the development of bacterial complications.
Indiscriminate use of antibiotics:
- leads to an increase in resistance of microflora (subsequently, this preparation will not help);
- leads to disruption of the normal microflora (though not always, only when prescribed wrong);
- increases the risk of adverse reactions (allergy, violation of enzyme works and so on.);
- leads to an increase in treatment costs.
What are the basic principles for prescribing antibiotics?
First of all, it is necessary to take into account the severity and form of the disease, then – etiology (to know what kind of microbe responsible for the development of infection). Finally, it is important to determine the sensitivity of bacteria to certain antibiotics. But, of course, for pediatrician at the clinic is very difficult to do this. There are conditions such as acute pneumonia, for example, when you can not wait for the results of sowing. We must immediately, at diagnosis, assign antibiotic therapy. So doctors of clinics may focus on developments on the etiology of acute diseases that we already have in Russia.
Another important point – this is the age of the child. Because for the conventional treatment for newborn and premature babies require very different antibiotics. Two years or five years child – in every age will have its etiology, its flora, guilty of the development of the disease. It is also important to know if the child ill at home or in a hospital setting. For example, home pneumonia is most often caused by pneumococcus, which is not sensitive to gentamicin. And many doctors prescribed it, considering it a good antibiotic (an inexpensive, small dosage).
There is such a dangerous atypical pathogens as Chlamydia and Mycoplasma, which reproduce only inside cells. And needs only such an antibiotic which can penetrate in cells. This ability has only macrolides (macrofoams, rulid, Rovamycinum, sumamed and others). Macrolides are made based on erythromycin. But if the erythromycin is quickly degraded in the acidic environment of the stomach and may affect the motility of the gastrointestinal tract, all new macrolides children tolerated significantly better and cause fewer side effects. Therefore, we can fearlessly use them at home with mycoplasma and chlamydia infection. Moreover, the macrolide is sensitive and pneumococcus.