Seasonal allergies – this is a reaction of the immune system to certain stimuli, which interact with the human body in certain periods, seasons.
Today hay fever suffers every fifth inhabitant of the planet, regardless of age, sex, region of residence and climatic conditions.
Previously it was thought that the main factor provoking allergy refers to a possible predisposition associated with a genetic cause. Genetic predisposition does exist, however, proved that the allergy directly inherited, it is confirmed by statistics:
- A mother with allergies, 25% -30% of children are born with allergic reactions.
- 20-25% with allergies are allergic heredity on father.
- 50% of children born to a father and mother with allergies, have a history of allergies.
Scientists have found specific genes that parents pass directly allergic child, from the very first hours of conception. These children formed deficit secretory function of the immunoglobulin IgA, which further contributes to the sensitization and aggressive immune response to the impact of pollen of plants, trees and grasses.
Hypersensitivity organism to a number of allergens and causes seasonal allergies. The immune system responds to air imbued with foreign substances by producing antibodies. And this reaction is manifested in the symptoms of allergy:
- rhinitis (stands clear liquid);
- sneezing, constant itching in the nose;
- nasal congestion;
- redness, tearing eyes, conjunctivitis;
- a feeling of fullness in the ears;
- lack of energy, fatigue, insomnia;
- cutaneous manifestations: peeling, dryness, redness of the skin around the eyes, nose, armpits, between toes, etc.
Treatment of seasonal allergies
Therapeutic interventions, which involves the treatment of seasonal allergies, depend on the flowering period (spring, summer or autumn), the stage of allergic process and characteristics of the patient.
Objective of treatment is not only to reduce the severity of symptoms, but also in the protection of vulnerable to exposure to allergens. In addition to the elimination of the provoking factor, one of the main methods is pharmacotherapy, which can be divided into the following groups:
- Prophylactic medications – antihistamines nonsteroidal group. These medications can inhibit the very initial phase of the immune response to an allergen. Warning secretion of inflammatory mediators, histamine inhibition of production helps to reduce the severity of allergy. Antihistamines are shown throughout the season of flowering trees and plants, even in the absence of overt symptoms. Means forms may be tableted, or intranasally, in the form of sprays, powders for inhalation aerosols. For children there is a convenient form – syrup, which is no less effective .
- Symptomatic treatment of seasonal allergies also involves the use of antihistamines, often for the relief of rhinitis and conjunctivitis. New-generation drugs are available in convenient form for admission, both local and inward (drops, sprays, syrups, suspensions, aerosols, tablets).
Advantages – reception 1-2 times a day, no effect sleepiness prompt action (30-60 minutes), duration (24 hours), high absorption rate digestive organs, no habituation effect.
Funds from seasonal allergies
Treatment of hay fever involves complex actions based on the main event – the elimination of pollen and trigger the exception of possible food supply provocateurs at cross-allergy.
Funds from seasonal allergies are divided into different groups and may include:
- Antihistamines are the last generation. They are effective and safe, have a duration of action is often enough to receive one tablet, the effect of which lasts up to 12 hours.
- Combination products.
- Preparations of sodium cromoglycate.
- Asit – specific immunotherapy.
Preparations from seasonal allergies
Drug treatment is aimed at relief of hay fever and symptom control, drugs from seasonal allergies are selected in accordance with the clinical manifestations and severity of the process.
- mild symptoms, minor manifestation of hay fever. The main treatment is the use of non-steroidal prophylactic antihistamines – claritin, zyrtec, kestin. These drugs from seasonal allergies do not cause drowsiness, are long and do not cause addiction. Preparations I-th generation can be assigned for itching, rashes, when on the contrary, drowsiness and sedation will be productive. The average severity of hay fever is supervised by local corticosteroids, rash, dermatitis respond well to treatment such drugs. Last generation antihistamines in combination with corticosteroids ointments produce results after just 1-2 days.
- Severe seasonal allergies involves administration of high doses of hormones for relief of acute symptoms. Hormones are shown a short course, as soon as the aggravation is neutralized, the patient is transferred to a more gentle treatment.
Thus, the drugs from seasonal allergies – are the main groups:
- Combination products (a combination of antihistamines and ephedrine).