Human papillomavirus infection (PVI) is one of the most common urogenital viral infections, sexually transmitted diseases. The most frequent manifestation of human papillomavirus infection – “genital warts” . Already in the late 60s of the XIX century, when the methodical study of the possibility of a viral infection of the genital warts virus were isolated, the structure of which had much in common with viral particles vulgar warts skin that spoke of the kinship of these viruses. Indeed, they both belong to the human papillomavirus, only their different types. But HPV infection is commonly referred to as the disease of warts at the location on the genitals.
How is transmitted HPV infection?
PVI Transfer occurs only through sexual contact. The infection affects mainly young women, sexually active with multiple partners, and the breadth of human papillomavirus infection spread has increased dramatically in recent years .
Symptoms of human papillomavirus infection
The incubation period for papillomavirus infection ranges from 1 to 9 months, depending on the state of immunity, infected person, averaging 3 months. During this period, HPV infection does not manifest itself.
Symptoms depend on the type of IMC that caused the disease. Distinguish papillomavirus infection as genital warts, flat and inverted (intraepithelial) warts.
Genital warts mainly appear as single or multiple small (and sometimes large or giant size) papillary type of education pale pink on a short stem and resemble a wart, cauliflower or rooster comb. Depending on the location (on the external genitals, vagina, cervix), genital warts can be bodily or intense red color. Subjected to ulceration, warts secrete a fluid with an unpleasant odor. Giant warts can be located symmetrically on both large and small labia, capture all sex gap, and move on the femoral-inguinal folds. Occasionally they are placed on the perineum, between the buttocks, and the isolation around the anus with the transition to the mucous membrane of his sphincter. Extensive warts can be localized around the urethra to form a sleeve.
Since the growth of genital warts occurs painlessly infected with HPV infection often do not notice them, and only with vigorous growth of warts seek medical advice. The appearance of significant discharge causes maceration of skin ulceration and warts, which leads to itching and burning. When warts in patients are large and giant sizes it is difficulty even walking.
Papillomavirus cervical lesions are often asymptomatic and detected only when the gynecological examination. These papillomas are very dangerous and proved their participation in cervical cancer.
Diagnosis of human papillomavirus infection
The diagnosis of genital warts is made by characteristic symptoms and usually does not cause problems due to the typical appearance of warts. Genital warts should be distinguished from the broad warts, is a manifestation of secondary syphilis. Unlike genital warts they have a wide base, dense, do not bleed. In doubtful cases it is necessary to investigate the discharge for the detection of Treponema pallidum and to conduct serological tests for syphilis.
The diagnosis of flat warts and endophytic based on external examination is very difficult to deliver. Therefore it is necessary to use additional methods. Thus, the human papillomavirus lesions of the vagina and cervix can be investigated by colposcopy. The most important diagnostic criterion is the presence of the correct capillary network in these outgrowths, which revealed the lesion after treatment with 3% acetic acid solution.
At a certain experience colposcopic study can allocate portions suspicious papilloma infection, severe dysplasia and malignancy, which is necessary for targeted biopsy. However, when a definitive diagnosis should be used additional methods.
The treatment of human papillomavirus infection
Warts are always removed, regardless of their type, location and size, the more that the spontaneous cure of human papillomavirus infection never comes, and benign genital warts occurring in rare cases may degenerate into carcinoma. Remote warts must be subjected to histological examination to exclude combination with precancerous lesions and the possibility of malignant transformation.
Depending on the location and size of warts, there are several ways of treatment.
When the location of warts on the vulva and vagina made removing them with scissors or a scalpel under local anesthesia, after the removal of warts on the wound surface impose a pressure bandage for 5-6 days. However, surgical techniques, including radical nature, often does not lead to the desired effect, often relapses.
Perhaps the treatment of cervical warts using diathermocoagulation and cryosurgical method.
Treatment with interferon (an antiviral, antiproliferative and immunomodulatory substance) genital warts gives a very modest success, although very effective in the treatment of PVI other localization .
If you can not apply the surgical treatment of warts use the podophyllum (cytostatic drug): cloth moistened with alcohol solution podofillina is applied to the warts first 3 hours, then the time of its application to increase to 24 hours. Treatment was repeated 1-2 times a week until the warts disappear. It should be borne in mind that the overdose of podophyllin can occur death. Should not be administered to pregnant podophyllin, as it kills the fetus in the treatment of this drug . Thus, both local and systemic side effects limit its use podophyllin.
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For the treatment of patients with infection papillomavirus lower genital system used (with high therapeutic effect) CO2 laser. Pre prophylactically appointed metronidazole, doxycycline, nystatin, immunomodulators. In women CO2 laser effects on the affected areas is carried out directly after the end of menstruation. The advantages of this method is the rapid and complete healing of the wound without scarring, safety in use during pregnancy.