Polio — an acute viral infection. It is characterized by inflammation of the nasal mucosa, and intestine, where primarily the virus enters from the external environment.
In some cases, and some affected parts of the nervous system, after which the virus is stored blood.
The name of the disease comes from Latin roots: polios — gray, myelos — spinal cord. In the nervous system, in fact, most often affects the gray matter of the spinal cord, i.e. nerve cells themselves. (White matter — their processes, conducting nerve impulses.) In the first to suffer anterior trunk of the spinal cord, at least — the respiratory center in the brain subcortical nucleus (bulbar form of the disease) and the facial nerve (Pontin form).
Polio virus belongs to the genus enterovirus. They can catch and food and airborne, the dust and air ways, as well, as expected, through the water.
He is very stable. In the water can be maintained up to 100 days, in feces — up to six months. He was not killed or freezing, or drying, or the influence of hydrochloric acid gastric juice. It is not either sensitive to antibiotics or to any chemotherapeutic drugs. However, in the environment it can kill concentrated disinfectants, such as chlorine usual. High temperatures and sunlight he suffers badly, by boiling die.
The source of infection are the only people. Animals do not get sick. The danger is that there are many (99%) of deleted forms of the disease, which are perceived in the family as «intestinal flu». But those who are infected by these patients, there may be paralysis. In addition, some virus carriers have no symptoms, they feel healthy and still emit dangerous virus into the environment.
Most often affects children under 10 years. Maximum sensitivity is observed in 3-4 years. However, in recent polio is more common in adults. Moreover, according to some reports, the adults are characterized by more severe, dangerous forms. Most likely to get over a summer-autumn period. Infected person is dangerous already three days before the onset of the disease, and even within a week after recovery. Sometimes, however, have suffered the disease excrete the virus for much longer — according to some estimates, up to 40 days after recovery.
What happens when infected with polio?
Polio virus enters the body through the respiratory or digestive tract. First, it multiplies in lymphoid tissue, which is designed to protect against infection. In this case, it is not only helpless but also a breeding ground for germs. Propagated by the polio virus erupts into the bloodstream and then into the nervous system, where most often affects the gray matter of the anterior divisions of the spinal cord. Suffering and other departments spinal cord and brain, but to a lesser extent. Affected by the polio virus nerve cells die. But three days later an active replication of the virus in the spinal cord suspended. It is assumed that this is the result of the fight against the virus itself tissues producing some safener. Paralysis occur when cell death of 3/4 in this area of the brain. Then the dead cells are replaced by scar, which, of course, functionally replace them can not. Sometimes it affects the heart: there is inflammation of the heart muscle cells — myocarditis. After suffering polio acquired an immunity to it, which persists for life.
How to avoid polio?
Since the polio virus can be transmitted to food and water, raw water can not drink. When swimming in open reservoirs, water should not fall into the mouth. Imported fruits and vegetables (especially from Central Asia) should be washed thoroughly and pour over boiling water. The virus can be transmitted through and dried fruit, so now it is planned to temporarily ban their import from Central Asia. In the context of the immediate epidemiological danger advisable to wear a protective mask.
Now about vaccinations. Sure, they want children, except those in which initially strongly reduced immunity. They can not work out a vaccination immunity to the virus, they will only undermine the immune system even more. In this case, about the appropriateness of vaccinations should consult with an immunologist.
You can not vaccinate a sick child, especially in diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. After SARS, wait for 1.5 months. However, based on epidemiological indications instill all children and adults exposed to virus carriers.
But even if there is good reason for grafting, questions remain.
Currently, there are two types of polio vaccine: inactivated Polio vaccine (IPV) with the Salk killed three types of viruses and live Polio vaccine (DRI or HPLM) Sabin. Initially, all used inactivated vaccine. It turned out she was not effective enough. Then developed live. It is much more efficient, but may cause mild disease. And in one case, there are 1.5 million vaccine-associated paralytic polio. In addition, it is now proven grafted child can devote some time weakened virus and infect others children. And from them are infected others. And the virus, passing through several children’s organisms, may mutate and become pathogenic again and cause disease with paralysis. The fact that the vaccine strains of polio virus can sometimes cause paralytic disease and on which vaccinated, and on which contact with them, it was recognized in 1969 by the Advisory Committee. Therefore, in the laboratories now for analyzes of material from patients with poliomyelitis determine whether the vaccine is a virus or «wild». In connection with the properties of the virus in the United States since 1992, adopted a sequential scheme of vaccinations. The first two vaccinations are with killed vaccine, then one — alive. Vaccinations are still doing with a live vaccine. It is quite effective, easy to use (no need to inject) and is inexpensive.
Inactivated vaccine can get only in paid vaccination centers.
In the treatment of poliomyelitis primarily important absolute rest, which will reduce the likelihood of osteoarticular complications: bed rest, the use of supporting corsets. In addition, physical therapy is used for the prevention of joint stiffness — hot compresses on the area of painful muscles, exercise therapy under medical supervision. Sometimes prescribe drugs with anti-inflammatory action, analgesics and tranquilizers (such as Generic Arava (Leflunomide), Generic Indocin (Indomethacin), Generic Arcoxia (Etoricoxib) and others, which you can buy online through the Internet that will cost you cheap or with good discounts).