Malaria, formerly called «swamp fever» — a group of infectious diseases caused by Plasmodium falciparum, which is transmitted to humans through bites of malaria-transmitting mosquitoes (mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles). 85-90% of cases and deaths recorded in southern Africa. Each year more than 1 million cases are fatal.
The source of infection — a sick person or a parasite. Identified three ways of contracting malaria: the main — transmissible (by mosquitoes), parenteral (through infected medical instruments) and transplacental.
Symptoms of malaria
The main symptom of malaria is a fever that occurs only when the concentration of parasites in the blood reaches a certain level. Are 4 forms of malaria caused by various types of pathogens: a three-day, four-day, tropical and the so-called oval-malaria. Each form of the disease is different, but all are characterized by common symptoms of fever, enlargement of the spleen and anemia.
Malaria is a polycyclic infections, it is isolated within 4 periods:
- incubation (primary latent);
- the period of primary acute manifestations;
- latent secondary;
- period of relapse.
The duration of the incubation period depends on the type of pathogen. At the end of him appear so-called symptoms — harbingers of disease: headache, chills, muscle aches.
The acute phase is characterized by recurrent attacks of fever. During the attack there is a clear shift stages of chills, fever and sweating. During the chill, which can last from half an hour to 3 hours, the body temperature rises, but the patient can not get warm, cyanosis of the extremities. Pulse rate, blood pressure increases and breathing becomes shallow.
Chill period ends and begins a hectic period, the patient is warmed, the body temperature can rise to 40-41S. Patient has red face, the code becomes dry and hot, there is the psycho-emotional agitation, anxiety, confusion. Patients complain of headache, convulsions sometimes appear. By the end of fever the body temperature drops very quickly, which is accompanied by profuse sweating. The patient quickly calms down and falls asleep. This is followed by a period apyrexia, during which the patient of malaria will remain normal body temperature, and a feeling of satisfaction. But the attacks will be repeated with a certain periodicity, which depends on the type of pathogen.
Against the background of seizures in patients appear enlargement of the spleen, liver, and anemia. Malaria affects almost all body systems. The most severe lesions are observed in the cardiovascular (kardiodistrofiya), nervous (neuritis, neuralgia, migraine), genitourinary (nephritis), and hematopoietic systems. Usually each patient are recorded 10-12 acute attacks, after which the infection dies and comes secondary latency malaria. When inefficient or incorrect treatment after a few weeks or months — appear relapse of the disease.
Features malaria species depending on the type of exciter:
- Falciparum malaria. The incubation period can last from 10 days to 12 months. Prodromal period is usually the common symptoms. The disease begins acutely. During the first week of fever is the wrong one, and then set a fever, in which attacks are repeated every other day. Seizures usually occur in the first half of the day, there is a clear shift stages of chills, fever and sweating. After 2-3 attacks markedly increased spleen, and at 2 weeks of the disease develop anemia.
- Oval-malaria in its manifestations very similar to the three-day malaria, but the disease occurs more easily. The minimum incubation period lasts 11 days. Febrile seizures occur most often in the evening.
- Four-day malaria are benign forms of malaria infection. The incubation period is typically less than 42 days (at least 25 days) and febrile seizures are clearly alternate in 2 days . Enlarged spleen and anemia occur rarely.
- Tropical malaria is characterized by a short incubation period (an average of 7 days) and the presence of typical prodromal period. Patients with this form of malaria is often lacking the typical symptoms of an attack. Chill period can be expressed weakly or absent febrile period may be prolonged (30-40 hours), temperature reduction occurs without the express sweating. In patients observed confusion, convulsions, insomnia. They often complain of abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea.
The treatment of malaria
There is little for the treatment of this debilitating disease. The most reliable and proven treatment for malaria for decades is quinine. But doctors try to replace it by other means, such as Generic Aralen (Chloroquine Phosphate), Generic Plaquenil (Hydroxychloroquine), Generic Stromectol (Ivermectin), Generic Vibramycin (Doxycycline) and others, which you can buy online through the Internet that will cost you cheap or with good discounts.
- For the purpose of the drug should consult a doctor. It should be noted that start taking preventive medications needed in advance (for 1-2 weeks before leaving the danger zone) and continue taking for some time after return from the dangerous area.
- Destruction of mosquitoes — carriers of the infection.
- The use of protective mosquito nets and repellents.