Drug Information: Indications, Side Effects, Warnings
Category:Â Surgery, Anticonvulsants
Generic Dilantin is used for treating tonic-clonic (grand mal) and partial seizures. It is also used to prevent and treat seizures that may occur during or after brain or nervous system surgery.
Brand(s): Eptoin / Epsolin
Manufacturer: Abbott / Zydus
Nosological classification (ICD-10):
G40.3 Generalized idiopathic epilepsy and epileptic syndromes
G50.0 Trigeminal neuralgia
I48 Atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter
I49.4 Other and unspecified premature depolarization
I49.9 Irregular heartbeat, unspecified
R25.2 cramps and spasms
T46.0 Poisoning by cardiac glycosides and drugs of similar action
Pharmacological action â€“ is antiepileptic, anticonvulsant, anti-arrhythmic, muscle relaxant.
Possesses anticonvulsant activity (without the expressed sedative and hypnotic effect), which is manifested in generalized and partial seizures.
In high doses, it disturbed coordination of movements.
Has an activating effect on the central nervous system (shortens the period of immobility in the test «despair» and reduces the ptosis caused by reserpine), antiarrhythmic — heart (reduces the maximum rate of depolarization, increases the excitability threshold slows conductivity of the bundle of His and the Purkinje fibers).
Suppresses vestibular reflexes, minimizes the appearance of some forms of Meniere’s syndrome.
It effects on the active and passive transport of sodium and calcium through cellular and subcellular membranes of nerve cells.
Significantly reduces the level of sodium in the neuron, since it reduces the flow by blocking Na + -K + ATPase and brain facilitates active transport out of the cell. Changes of calcium-phospholipid interactions in the cell membrane and reduces the active transport of potassium and calcium, inhibits the release of neurotransmitter amino acids (glutamate, aspartate) from nerve endings than provide anticonvulsant effect. Has the ability to inhibit glutamate receptors. Antiarrhythmic activity is realized through the reduction of central adrenergic effects on the heart, stabilizing the membranes of cardiomyocytes with increasing their permeability to potassium ions.
Epilepsy (large seizures), prevention of post-traumatic epilepsy and postneyrohirurgicheskoy, ventricular arrhythmias, including intoxication with cardiac glycosides, some forms of Meniere’s syndrome, trigeminal neuralgia.
-the liver and kidney
Syndrome of Morgagni-Adams-Stokes, AV block II-IIIstepeni, sinuauricular block, bradycardia, pregnancy and lactation.
Used with caution in patients suffering from alcoholism, diabetes mellitus, systemic lupus erythematosus, with hyperthermia.
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