Active Ingredient: Promethazine
Pharmachologic effectÂ Phenergan
Antihistamines with a strong sedative activity, potentiates the effect of hypnotics, local- anesthetics, narcotic and analgesic drugs, moderately reduces body temperature, removes the hiccups and vomiting; clinical effect appears when administered in 15-60 minutes after intramuscular administration — after 20 min after intravenous injection — 3-5 minutes and lasts for 6 hours, and sometimes 10-12.
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Side effectsÂ Phenergan
- Allergic diseases (hives, hay fever, eczema, serum sickness, exudative diathesis, drug allergy, asthma and others.), allergic rhinitis, migraine, rheumatic fever with severe exudative allergic component, pruritic dermatoses, Meniere’s disease, chorea, encephalitis, other diseases of the central nervous system with a concomitant increase in the permeability of the vessel walls;
- Sea and air sickness;
- For sedation in the postoperative period, as well as to enhance a general anesthetic, and so on.
- From the nervous system and sensory organs: sedation, dizziness, drowsiness, anxiety, agitation, nightmares, increased sleep apnea; rarely — disorientation, confusion, extrapyramidal disorder, increased seizures (in children); ccomodation and vision, noise or ringing in the ears.
- From the cardio-vascular system and blood (blood, hemostasis): orthostatic hypotension (with on / in the introduction), hypertension, tachycardia or bradycardia; rarely — leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, agranulocytosis.
- From the digestive tract: anesthesia and dry mouth, nausea, vomiting, cholestasis, constipation.
- From the respiratory system: dry nose, throat.
- From the urogenital system: rarely — difficulty or painful urination.
- Allergic reactions: rash, dermatitis, asthma.
Other: increased sweating, photosensitivity, pain (with on / in the introduction).
Mode of application
Inside (after eating), intramuscular, and intravenous. The maximum dose in adults for internal use: single — 0,075 grams daily — 0,5 g; for intramuscular injection: single dose — 0.05 g (2 ml of a 2.5% solution)Â daily — 0.25 g (10 ml of a 2.5% solution).
The most common oral drug is prescribed to 0,025 g 2-3 times a day; intramuscularly — 1-2 ml of 2.5% solution; intravenously administered drug in the composition lytic mixtures: 5-10 ml of 0.5% or 2 ml of a 2.5% solution. For children doses are reduced (according to the age).
Can suppress the cough reflex, so caution is needed in patients (especially children) with acute exacerbation of chronic respiratory diseases. Caution should be used in people with impaired liver function, diseases of the cardiovascular system and the suppression of bone marrow hematopoiesis. In old age, caution is necessary when parenteral administration of high doses, as possible extrapyramidal disorders and acute urinary retention. Prolonged use should be periodically monitored cellular composition of peripheral blood. As an antiemetic should be used only when prolonged vomiting of known etiology. In order to prevent the oppression of the CNS recommended the appointment of caffeine. Prolonged use increases the risk of dental disease (caries, periodontal disease, candidiasis) due to the decrease in salivation. May mask ototoxic effects (ringing in the ears and dizziness) used drugs together. Raises requirement for riboflavin. Should not be used during the drivers of vehicles and people skills relate to the high concentration of attention (especially in the beginning of the course). It is necessary to eliminate the use of alcohol during the treatment.
Symptoms. Children — excitement, anxiety, hallucinations, ataxia, athetosis, convulsions, mydriasis and immobility of pupils, facial flushing, hyperthermia; then — circulatory collapse, coma. In adults — lethargy, depression, coma; then — psychomotor agitation, convulsions; rarely — hyperthermia and flushing of the skin.
Treatment. Gastric lavage, the appointment of activated charcoal inside (during the detoxification early after oral administration of the drug); on the testimony — anticonvulsants, artificial ventilation, and other resuscitation.